Early Adopters

Links to existing tools, art projects, articles and research:

Howard S. Becker
This site contains a wealth of papers.
Look also for his book "Artworlds". "....this book focuses on the networks of cooperation and assistance through which work gets done ." "All artistic work, like all human activity, involves the joint activity of a number, often a large number, of people. Through their cooperation, the art work we eventually see or hear comes to be and continues to be. The work always shows signs of that cooperation. The forms of cooperation may be ephemeral, but often become more or less routine, producing patterns of collective activity we can call an art world." "Art worlds do not have boundaries around them, so that we can say that these people belong to a particular art world while those people do not. I am not concerned with drawing a line separating an art world from other parts of a society. Instead, we look for groups of people who cooperate to produce things that they, at least, call art; having found them, we look for other people who are also necessary for that production, gradually building up as complete a picture as we can of the entire cooperating network that radiates out from the work in question. The world exists in the cooperative activity of those people, not as a structure or organization, and we use words like those only as shorthand for the notion of networks of people cooperating." "Before people can organize themselves as a world explicitly justified by making objects or events defined as art, they need sufficient political and economic freedom to do that, and not all societies provide it. .... the interaction of all the involved parties produces a shared sense of the worth of what they collectively produce. Their mutual appreciation of the conventions they share, and the support they mutually afford one another, convince them that what they are doing is worth doing. If they act under the definition of "art," their interaction convinces them that what they produce are valid works of art. " "By all means, It sounds like an interesting exhibition and I wish you all the luck in the world with it. I've always been intrigued by the people you call early adopters. I've thought of them as a distant early warning system for the larger, more conventional art world. But it's the same idea.
Best, Howie Becker"

Cultural Landscape Survey, Chicago
Cover, Contents and Acknowledgments(pdf)
Commissioner's Letter(pdf)
Executive Summary(pdf)
Geographic Distribution(pdf)
Capitalization (continued)(pdf)
10 aa Conclusions and Recommendations(pdf)

Marketplace of Ideas: But First, The Bill / William Osborne (article) quote: "Europeans view the city itself as the greatest and most complete expression of the human mind and spirit. Venice, Florence, Rome, Prague, Amsterdam, Dresden, Barcelona and Paris, just to name a few, are all embued with this ideal. Americans, by contrast, behave almost as if they have lost hope in their cities, as if they were dangerous and inhuman urban wastelands to be abandoned for the suburbs. This tacit assumption has had a profound but largely unrecognized effect on American political and cultural discourse. Classical music is one of the most urban of art forms. Its status will always be measured by the health and vibrancy of our cities. Ultimately, questions of arts funding will only be fully resolved when we recognize that the well-being of our cultural and urban environments are deeply interdependent." "I'm glad you liked my article.  I'm happy to see it linked to your site. When it comes to appreciating and supporting the arts, Americans could learn a great deal from the Germans.  I think your project is very important and wish you the very best of luck with it.
All my best, William"

The Small Cities Book: On the Cultural Future of Small Cities / W.F. Garrett-Petts (Editor)

Reggae to Rachmaninoff - How and Why People Participate in Arts and Culture (pdf)

The Wallace Foundation|Knowledge Center|Arts Participation

Is there a better case for the arts? part 1(pdf) part 2 (pdf) of an archived weblog / Douglas McLennan

Center For Arts And Culture

Americans for the Arts

Canadian Artists' Representation

Maps and cartograms of the 2004 US presidential election results / Michael Gastner, Cosma Shalizi, and Mark Newman, University of Michigan

The Referendum of 2004 (article)

General Public Agency (portfolio)

Catholics and the Fine Arts: an investitgation of the liturgical imagination / Andrew M. Greeley


Critical Condition / Scott Timberg (article)

Global Media Cities in a Worldwide Urban Network / Stefan Krätke

Wie urban ist der digitale Urbanismus?/Walter Prigge
“How urban is digital urbanism” - brief: The “real” city is disintegrating. Under the impact of globalization, global marketplaces overlay local cultures. From the de-urbanized real city, mainly younger inhabitants move into virtual space - virtual communities cast themselves as cities – distributed, digital urbanism may be seen as the pinnacle of urban, political culture. Urban (modern) culture is defined by a tri-step at the basis of cultural production. there is not only a place, but a need for a critic who creates models of appropriate reception while mediating between consumer and producer. There is a gap between event, perception, and representation. Digital media enable communication in real time; an event (datum/information) provokes a new event immediately upon appearance (presentation) and thus immediately impacts action/reaction - without a detour through perception, re-presentation and mediation of this event. The event, and thus action/reaction no longer requires cultural absorption, and thus does not require "representation" and "theory". The “Space of Flow” is superimposed over real geographies and produces different imaginations, which no longer match those old geographies of culture and world. History is a narration of data/information that is controlled by theory. Real-time presentation/interaction makes history (what the critic initiates) unnecessary. What matters are the social relations between the users/programmers. “Culture for all” becomes “culture by all.” The question arises: what are the conditions of production of urban relations in the virtual media of communication. The goal is the creation of dialogic structures.There is a challenge: as long as the old modes of cultural production rule along the lines of their traditional (historical/theoretical) programming, the new media will have limited chances to realize the qualitative, “interactive” leap into a new media mode of production, thus realizing their urban potential.

Analytic Borderlands: economy and culture in the global city/ Saskia Sassen


open call